Radwaste Resulting from Use of Radiation Sources
Specialized activity on management of radioactive waste generated during the use of radiation sources in medicine, science, different industrial branches, is performed by specialized facilities for radioactive waste management included into Ukrainian state Association Radon (UkrDO Radon). According to the SNRIU licenses, six interregional specialized plants act on the relevant territories: Kyiv, Donetsk, Odessa, Kharkiv, Dnipropetrovsk and Lviv SISP.
The SISPs collect, transport, accept solid radwaste, including spent radiation sources, and place waste into special facilities on SISP industrial sites to ensure safe storage and security of radwaste and spent radiation sources.
Information on Radioactive Waste Stored at State Interregional Specialized Plants (SISP) of Radon Corporation as of 1 July 2017
|Radioactive waste material||Location||Amount*, m3||Activity**, Bq|
|Low- and intermediate-level solid waste||Kyiv SISP||2105.0||2.92E+15|
|Low- and intermediate-level liquid waste
|Tubing contaminated by technologically enhanced normally occurring sources||Kharkiv SISP||812||2.72E+08|
Information on Spent Radiation Sources Placed for Storage at State Interregional Specialized Plants of Radon Corporation as of 1 July 2017
|Radioactive waste material||Location||Pcs.||Activity**, Bq|
|Disused sealed radiation sources in well-type storage facilities||Kyiv SISP||6611||1.39E+14|
|Disused sealed radiation sources in shielding||Kyiv SISP||114053||1.44E+15|
|Disused sealed high-level radiation sources (radioisotope thermoelectric generators)||Odesa SISP||15||1.97E+16|
* The amount of solid radioactive waste is indicated considering shielding of disused radiation sources.
** The activity is indicated considering decay of radionuclides.
SISPs collect, transport, accept solid radioactive waste, including waste in the form of disused radiation sources, place radioactive waste into special facilities at industrial sites of SISPs to ensure safe storage and security of radioactive waste and disused radiation sources.
Besides, specialized plants are involved in the immediate actions of the competent authorities on elimination of emergencies, in case of revealed orphan radiation sources or illicit trafficking of radiation sources. All such sources are transferred to storage facilities of the specialized plants to ensure their safe and monitored storage.
Considering the fact that radioactive waste storage facilities on sites of the specialized plants have been constructed, commissioned and filled in the Soviet times without meeting all the scope of current safety requirements, decisions were taken in 1990s on conversion and upgrading of the specialized plants in order to switch to temporary container storage of radioactive waste. Accordingly, it was decided to terminate operation of old radwaste facilities intended for disposal of radioactive waste and disused radiation sources (without an intention of their further retrieval). Instead, temporary hangar type storage facilities for container storage of radioactive waste are constructed and operated on SISP sites. Old facilities are shut down and are under continuous service to be kept in a safe state, under monitoring and control.
Further measures related to upgrading and conversion of SISPs are defined in the National Targeted Environmental Program for Radioactive Waste Management. Among others, it is envisaged to take measures on retrieval of radioactive waste from the old facilities and its re-disposal in the centralized facilities on the Vektor site in the Exclusion Zone. This will allow liquidation of all places of radioactive waste disposal and related potential hazard of radionuclide spreading into the environment. In each specific case, such decisions shall comply with results of safety review, which is currently performed by specialized enterprises in accordance with conditions of SNRIU licenses.
The decision on planning and implementation of specific measures, in particular on construction, modernization, reconstruction of radwaste storage facilities to ensure their further safe operation, retrieval and repacking of radioactive waste to transport it to the centralized storage facilities, etc., shall be based on the results of safety assessment of radioactive waste storage/disposal facilities. Specific condition related to safety is included into the SISP licenses.
SISPs under the SNRIU licenses perform operation of stations for decontamination of underwear, special clothes and individual protection means contaminated by radioactive substances (special laundries). Special laundries provide relevant services for medical institutions and enterprises located in SISP service areas.
Activities taken in SISPs according to the approved procedures shall be followed by radiation dosimetric control and monitoring of the environment. Radiological laboratories of the special plants measure samples of underground and drain water, soil, vegetation, precipitations collected in controlled and observation areas of radwaste disposal points.
According to recommendation of the IAEA Mission “Integrated Regulatory Review Service (IRRS)” on practical implementation of the optimization principle, the special plants reviewed reference levels for doses of personnel exposure at enterprises taking into account actual doses received by personnel during activities and which are mostly from 1 to 4 mSv per year.
Within their activity, SISPs of the relevant service areas are involved into response and mitigation of consequences in case of revealed radioactively contaminated material, for example scrap metal with fragments contaminated by radionuclides beyond permissible levels; radiation contamination in domestic waste, and orphan radiation sources. If necessary, SISPs perform radiation monitoring of material, collection and transport of radioactive waste to SISP industrial sites.
Specialized plants are involved in the immediate actions of the competent authorities on elimination of emergencies, in case of revealed orphan radiation sources or illicit trafficking of radiation sources. All such radiation sources are transferred to storage facilities of the specialized plants to ensure their safe and monitored storage, and confinement from release into the environment and places available for the public.
Due to the antiterrorist operation in the Donetsk oblast, Donetsk SISP was temporary in the territory uncontrolled by Ukraine, and its activity was temporary suspended by the decision of the administrative authority in management of radioactive waste. Since Donetsk SISP only transported small batches of radioactive waste to Kharkiv or Dnipropetrovsk SISP, there was no seriously hazardous radwaste in its territory when control was lost. Moreover, plant infrastructure was damaged and will require restorative actions.
By the end of military actions, Donetsk SISP service area in territories controlled by Ukraine is passed to Dnipropetrovsk SISP.
- SNRIU Material